Academic Phrases

Useful Phrases and Sentences for Academic & Research Paper Writing

An abstract is a self-contained and short synopsis that describes a larger work. The abstract is the only part of the paper that is published online and in most conference proceedings. Hence abstract constitutes a very important section of your paper.  Also, when you submit your paper to a journal, potential reviewers only see the abstract when invited by an editor to review the manuscript. The abstract should include one or two lines briefly describing the topic, scope, purpose, results, and conclusion of your work. The abstract is indexed by search engines, so make sure that it has all the right words that a fellow researcher in the same field will be using while searching for articles online. Also, make sure it is rich with data and numbers to demonstrate the scientific rigor of your article. Be very clear and confident about your findings. Keep it punchy and straight to the point.

 The abstract section of your research paper should include the following:

    Topic
    Purpose
    Scope
    Results
    Conclusion

* * *

2. Introduction

Introduction section comes after the abstract. Introduction section should provide the reader with a brief overview of your topic and the reasons for conducting research. The introduction is a perfect place to set the scene and make a good first impression. Regarding word count, introduction typically occupies 10-15% of your paper, for example, if the total word count of your paper is 3000, then you should aim for an introduction of around 600 words. It is often recommended that the introduction section of the paper is written after finishing the other sections of the paper. This is because it is difficult to figure out what exactly to put in the introduction section of the paper until you have seen the big picture. Sound very confident about your chosen subject area and back up your arguments with appropriate references. After reading the introduction, the reader must have a clear idea of what to expect from the rest of your research paper.

The introduction section of your research paper should include the following:

    General introduction
    Problem definition
    Gaps in the literature
    Problems solution
    Study motivation
    Aims & objectives
    Significance and advantages of your work


1. General introduction:
Research on __ has a long tradition
For decades, one of the most popular ideas in __ literature is the idea that __
Recent theoretical developments have revealed that __
A common strategy used to study __ is to __
This research constitutes a relatively new area which has emerged  from __
These approaches have been influential in the field because of __
In the past several decades, __ have played an important  role in __
There are growing appeals for __
This is the field of study that deals with __
Most of the theories of __ are however focused on explaining __
There are three major theoretical and conceptual frameworks for __
The field has gradually broadened as __
This field of study is sometimes referred as __
This has been widely adopted in the field of __
This thesis considers the field of __ as the main subject of its study
One of the major topics to be investigated in this field is __
This is now a mature field which is now being spun out into commercial applications __
This field is maturing, with a wealth of well-understood methods and algorithms __
This field closely follows the paradigm of __
The field has met with great success in many problems __
The field only really took off in the late __ as it became more accessible to __
This is not particularly new and has been used for many years in the field of __
This field closely follows the paradigm of __
Widely considered to be a good way to __
This has been widely adopted in the field of __
This is more widely used at the time of __
This phenomenon has been widely observed
A common technique is to __
This is a technique common in __
There are several common kinds of __
 
2. Problem definition:
This seems to be a common problem in __
This leads to myriad problems in __
The main problem is that __
There is a further problem with __
One primary problem with __ is that __
The methods are not without their problems as will be discussed in __
The foremost problems are the facts that __
This makes up for the problem of __
This seems to be a common problem in __
This is a complex problem and to simplify it requires __
A challenging problem which arises in this domain is __
These problems are difficult to handle __
This is typically a complex problem __
A well-known problem with __  is that it does not take into account the __
One of the problems is that it considers only the __
The key problem with this technique is __
It is usually an ill-posed problem in the case of __
This problem is well-posed and does not require to impose __
This appears as a more straightforward problem compared to the __
This turns out to be even more problematic because __
The problem with such an implementation is that __
This poses some problems when carrying out the __
This problem  has attracted more attention in the field of __
This is a basic chicken-and-egg problem because __
Unfortunately, this approach results in problems related to __
These constraints make the problem difficult to __
Most of the research in this field is aimed at solving this problem.
This remains an open problem in the area.
This problem has received substantial interest.
These examples highlight the problem that __
The main practical problem that confronts us is __

3. Gaps in literature:
There is no previous research using __ approach.
As far as we know, no previous research has investigated __
There has been less previous evidence for __
Other studies have failed to __
To our knowledge, no study has yielded __
No study to date has examined __
Only a few studies have shown __
However, __ has rarely been studied directly.
Moreover, few studies have focussed on __
In particular no study, to our knowledge, has considered __
 
4. Problems solution:
One way to overcome these problems is to __
There are many alternative methods are available for solving these problems.
In order to rectify the problem of __
A solution to this problem is proposed in __
One approach to solve this problem involves the use of __
An alternative approach to the problem is __
This can be applied to solve these problems.
A number of works have shown that this problem can be overcome by using __
A large number of alternative approaches have been developed over the last few decades to ++
To overcome this problem, in the next section we demonstrate __
One way to overcome this problem is to __
To overcome this problem, some approaches have been made __
One way of recovering from this problem could be to __
This has been proposed to surmount the problems caused by __
A different approach to the traditional problem is given in __
A whole range of different approaches to the problem are available.
These techniques have potential to solve contemporary problems in __
We should tailor specific solutions to specific problems __
The standard solution to the problem is based on __
The solution proposed here addresses only the problem of __
There are techniques that have been developed to solve this problem __
This problem is usually overcome by __
There have been several attempts to solve the problem __
There exist many methods for dealing with this problem __
Broadly speaking, the problem can be addressed by __
One of the simplest ways of tackling this problem is __
This problem has been largely studied and many viable solutions have been found.
In general, this problem can be tackled in two different ways.
Other approaches have been shown to cope with the problem more efficiently.
We will review the main approaches to solve this problem.
Recently, a more general solution has been proposed for this problem.
Both these works provide a solution to the problem.
Recent methods focus on overcoming the problems by proposing different schemes for __
This strategy is not uncommon in this kind of problems.
We can apply our algorithm to solve this difficult problem.
This is how the problem can be tackled __
We have developed this generic method to solve a variety of problems.
We will now demonstrate our method on some specific problems.
Here we solve several problems simultaneously.
We have undergone a rethinking of the problem by __
A possible solution to the problem at hand is __
It is clear that the problem could be easily tackled by __

5. Study motivation:
It is of interest to know whether __  still hold true.
It would be of special interest to__
We therefore analyzed __ and investigated whether __
For this study, it was of interest to investigate __
We investigated whether __ can be partly explained by __
To examine the impact of __, we tested __
We have investigated the effect of __
We characterize different aspects of __
One way to investigate __ was to __
A new approach is therefore needed for __
To illuminate this uncharted area, we examined __

6. Aims & objectives:
The aim is to develop more sophisticated methods for __
The aim of this work is to develop __
The aims in this chapter are twofold: First __, Second __
For our first goal, we focus on two problems __
The aim here is to investigate __
The overall goal of this work was to __
This project aims to develop an overarching framework to __
The aim of the experiment is to compare __
The ultimate goal is to produce a __
The overall goal of this thesis was to pursue __
After defining the problem we explain the goals of the thesis.
With this aim in mind, in this paper we present a new method for __
Our research aims at finding a solution for this challenging problem of  __
There is no overall goal, apart from __
We examine some previous work and propose a new method for __
There are too many simultaneous goals making it difficult to __
One of the major aims of this work was to create __
The main objective is to investigate methods for improving __
The objectives can be restated in the light of __
The objective is to devise and implement a system for __
The objectives were partially met by developing a method to __
The objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of __
One of the objectives is to improve the __

7. Significance and advantages of your work:
This thesis documents several key contributions made to the fields of __
This thesis has made a number of significant contributions to the field of __
The contributions made here have wide applicability.
The contributions made should be of wide interest.
The first main contribution proposed in this field is a __
The contributions of this work are presented as follows: __
The main achievements, including contributions to the field can be summarised as follows: __
We summarize the main contributions of this thesis.
The key contribution of this work is the solution it provides __
It has numerous advantages as explained here __
It has significant benefits in terms of __
There is a clear advantage in following the methods of __
This has particular advantages over other __
All of these advantages make it particularly valuable in __
One of the primary benefits of this algorithm is __
This gives a significant advantage because __
These point out the advantages and practicability of __
One of the key benefits of the algorithm is __
The main advantage compared to previous method is __
This present some practical advantages.
The main advantage is the simplified pattern.
One practical advantage of the method is that it can be used in __
The advantage becomes all the more significant when __
In comparison with other techniques, this method has the advantage of __
The most important advantage of this method is that it can perform very well in __
It yielded significant speed advantages when __
The benefit of using the __ is expected to __
The main advantage is that we are able to __
To give some idea of the benefits of this method __
The additional advantage of using this method is that it results in __
This is an important advantage of this algorithm __
These are the main advantages of this method.

* * *

3. Literature review

The literature review should clearly demonstrate that the author has a good knowledge of the research area. Literature review typically occupies one or two passages in the introduction section. A well-written literature review should provide a critical appraisal of previous studies related to the current research area rather than a simple summary of prior works. The author shouldn’t shy away from pointing out the shortcomings of previous works. However, criticising other’s work without any basis can weaken your paper. This is a perfect place to coin your research question and justify the need for such a study. It is also worth pointing out towards the end of the review that your study is unique and there is no direct literature addressing this issue. Add a few sentences about the significance of your research and how this will add value to the body of knowledge.

The literature review section of your research paper should include the following:

    Previous literature
    Limitations of previous research
    Research questions
    Research to be explored

1. Previous literature:
The literature review shows that __
Previous research showed __
Seminal contributions have been made by __
A series of recent studies has indicated that __
Several theories have been proposed to __, some focusing on __, others on __
There has been numerous studies to investigate __
This has been used in several studies to assess __
Previous studies have shown __
Several studies suggest that __
This has also been explored in prior studies by __
Prior research suggests that __
Previous studies have emphasized __
The majority of prior research has applied __
Most early studies as well as current work focus on __
For instance, the following studies were conducted on __
Studies of __are well documented, it is also well acknowledged that __
A number of authors have recognized __
Some authors have also suggested that  __
Some authors have driven the further development of __
This has been discussed by a great number of authors in literature.
For example, research has provided evidence for __
The authors bring some information about the background of the problem, __
As has been previously reported in the literature, __
A large number of existing studies in the broader literature have examined __
The literature review shows that __
There exists a considerable body of literature on  __
In short, the literature pertaining to __ strongly suggests that __
Over time, an extensive literature has developed on __
This section presents a review of recent literature on __
This paper begins with a short review of the literature regarding the __
Several methods are reported in the literature to address this issue.
There is a wide choice of __ available in the literature.
This section reviews the literature related to __
It was reported in literature that __
A recent study by __ concluded that __
In the light of reported __ it is conceivable that __
The method introduced by __ has the advantage that __
One method employed by __ is __
A more comprehensive description can be found in __
For example, recent research suggests that __
This was successfully established as described by __
The author employed a __ methodology which prescribes the use of __

2. Limitations of previous research:
A number of questions regarding __ remain to be addressed.
A closer look to the literature on __, however, reveals a number of gaps and shortcomings.
This question has previously never been addressed because__
Most studies have relied on __
Previous studies by __ cannot be considered as conclusive because __
Previous studies have almost exclusively focused on __
This has been previously assessed only to a very limited extent because __
In the present studies __ were constrained to __
In previous studies were limited to __
Although results appear consistent with prior research, they appear inconsistent with __
These are previously unstudied because __
As far as we know, no previous research has investigated __
Moreover, although research has illuminated __ no study to date has examined __
Despite decades of research, this continues to be debated among __
This section points out some of the problems encountered in the extant research.
Although there are many studies, the research in __ remains limited.
However, the existing research has many problems in representing __
The literature on __ is less consistent
Historically, there has been a great deal of confusion in the literature regarding __
This approach remains briefly addressed in the literature.
These are rarely analyzed in the literature as __
There are key questions and notions that are still not discussed in the literature __
This is not clearly presented in the literature because __
This paper addresses the need for __, so far lacking in the scientific literature.
To fill this literature gap, this paper identifies __
Only a few works in literature demonstrate __
Although studies have been conducted by many authors, this problem is still insufficiently explored.
To our knowledge, no prior studies have examined __
However, the existing research has many problems in __
Therefore, important issue in the literature is __
However, we argue that previous literature suffers from certain weaknesses: __
Previous research can only be considered a first step towards a more profound understanding of __
The previous studies reveal that __ are usually the most problematic to __

3. Research questions:
More specific research questions will be introduced and investigated in __
A further question is whether __
Finally, another promising line of research would be __
The study addresses several further questions on __
Some of the interesting questions in this context are __
In order to address the questions outlined above, we report here __
These questions are of central interest as much recent research in __
Furthermore, __ is arguably an important question to be addressed.
The question now is how __ can be used to explain __
Study addresses the research question __
In order to properly address this question, we __
An important question associated with __ is __
A critical open question is whether __
A still unsolved question is whether __
This remains an open question as __
This question has previously never been addressed because __
This study offers a test of __ research question
Study addresses the research question __
Even in general __ research strategies is needed to explain __
The researcher should be interested here in __
Many questions remain unanswered __
There are some potentially open questions about the validity of __
The question that then naturally arises is __
The question then becomes how best to define__
This was an important question to study as __

4.Research to be explored:

A more systematic and theoretical analysis is required for __
As the authors note earlier, more work is necessary to__
Additional studies to understand more completely the key tenets of __ are required.
The unexpected findings signal the need for additional studies to understand more about __
This paper addresses __, so far lacking in the scientific literature.
A new approach is therefore needed for __
One of the tough challenges for all researchers in this domain is __

* * *

4. Methods

The methods section that follows the introduction section should provide a clear description of the experimental procedure, and the reasons behind the choice of specific experimental methods. The methods section should be elaborate enough so that the readers can repeat the experimental procedure and reproduce the results. The scientific rigor of the paper is judged by your materials and methods section, so make sure you elaborate on all the fine details of your experiment. Explain the procedures step-by-step by splitting the main section into multiple sub-sections. Order procedures chronologically with subheadings. Use past tense to describe what you did since you are reporting on a completed experiment. The methods section should describe how the research question was answered and explain how the results were analyzed. Clearly explain various statistical methods used for significance testing and the reasons behind the choice.

The methods section of your research paper should include the following:

    Experimental setup
    Data collection
    Data analysis
    Statistical testing
    Assumptions
    Remit of the experiment

1. Experimental setup:
This experimental design was employed because __
In the course of the experiment, __ played an important role.
The experiments were performed with __
This was experimentally investigated by __
Most experiments have been carried out with __
The main focus of the experiments was to calculate __
Prior to each experiment __
The experiments are completely based on __
In our preliminary experiments we estimated that __
In this experiment, we introduced a __
Methods were based on previous experiments __
This  proceeds in two stages: __
After a series of experiments it was found that __
Therefore, in this experiment we define goals as __
In this experiment, we introduced a __
We consider the setup generic, however, __
This was designed to acquire approximately __
These were designed in such a way that __
This experimental design was employed because __
This was specifically designed for __
This was designed to acquire approximately __

2. Data collection:
There were __ participants in this sample.
Participants first provided informed consent about __
We performed additional data collection with __
For this study, we analyzed the data collected from __
The data are less clear-cut than __
Data were collected and maintained by __
For this purpose, we employ survey data collected from __
The application employs data obtained from __
The analyzed data included: __
The procedures of handling the data followed the suggestions of __
Subsequently, __ were then used to elicit further data.
The experimental data on __ is very scarce.
The data in this work consists of __
Survey data were collected from __
This study used different data collection methods such as __
The quality can be enhanced by providing additional data for__
Such data are prone to __
We utilize secondary data from __
The data was divided into __
Participants in the first data collection were __
The sample was heterogeneous with respect to __
The sample size in this study was not considered large enough for__
We cannot deny the presence of some sample selection biases because __
The sample of respondents included __
The researchers pooled samples to __
The sample strategy was the same as for__

3. Data analysis:
However, there are trends in our data to suggest that __
The trend values were then subjected to __
We analysed data as a function of __
We used an established technique, namely __, to analyse __
This showed a judgement error of __
To investigate this statistically, we calculated __
A __ test was used to determine the significance of data
Our data show that there is __
Our data suggest that __ which  may be based partly on __
Data also revealed a significant __
Our data also address the __
Data were analyzed and correlated with __
The data are presented in Table __
However, according to our data __
We undertake the empirical analysis using data collected in __
The data is analyzed from different points of view such as __
The data reveals significant differences in __
Thus, the data supports the premise that __
Results provides a good fit to the data __
We compared the results with the original data in ways __
The evaluation of the data is shown in __
We explicitly accounted for __
Missing values were replaced using __
This analysis was confined to __
The evaluation of the data presented in this work leads to __

4. Statistical testing:
We explored these effects statistically by __
Statistical analyses was performed by using the __ applying a significance level of __
The results were statistically significant when compared using __
This was normally distributed throughout the study population.
This distribution resulted in __
Significant differences in the __ remained.
This was the only parameter that had a statistically significant correlation with __
We used __ statistics to report __
This had a statistically significant impact on __
The correlation between __ and __ is positive and statistically significant at __
We calculate __ statistic to test the null hypothesis that __
As shown in Table __ are statistically significant at all levels.
We can clearly see that the estimated values are positive and statistically significant at __
This revealed no statistical differences on __
The test for __ found no significant differences.
Our results show a statistically significant improvement in __
All differences in performance were statistically significant in __
The method achieves a statistically significant improvement compared to __
In order to obtain statistically representative __ it is required to __
To investigate this statistically, we calculated __
Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables used in the study using __
The significance testing was based on __
All statistical analyses were performed using __

5. Assumptions:
Such a potentially unrealistic assumption arises from the fact that __
Based on these assumptions, hypotheses were developed: __
Based on these assumptions, __ have been treated as __
This is based on assumptions that __
These assumptions are generally accepted these days__
The fundamental assumptions of the  models are: __
This assumption is supported by the fact that __
Under certain assumptions, __ can be construed as __
These assumptions result in __
This assumption might be addressed in future studies by __
This compilation of research assumptions should result in __
These assumptions have been disproved by __
According to __ assumption, the study reports faithfully __

6. Remit of the experiment:
For the current work, it is sufficient to point out that __
Because we were interested in __, we considered only __
This was sufficient to __
This is sufficiently generic to be adapted to other __
This is generally sufficient to produce good results.
Still, results might be sufficient, especially in __
This was not possible due to insufficient observations.
After a series of experiments __ was considered as sufficient.
It has been proven that __ must be sufficient to __
This was not sensitive enough to __
This study cannot be considered large enough for __
This is simpler and usually sufficient to __
It turns out that it is sufficiently accurate for __
There is in fact sufficient information present in __
This is considered sufficiently unique for __
This is enough to get a sufficiently accurate solution.

* * *

5. Results and Discussion

The results and discussion sections are one of the challenging sections to write. It is important to plan this section carefully as it may contain a large amount of scientific data that needs to be presented in a clear and concise fashion. The purpose of a Results section is to present the key results of your research. Results and discussions can either be combined into one section or organized as separate sections depending on the requirements of the journal to which you are submitting your research paper. Use subsections and subheadings to improve readability and clarity. Number all tables and figures with descriptive titles. Present your results as figures and tables and point the reader to relevant items while discussing the results. This section should highlight significant or interesting findings along with P values for statistical tests. Be sure to include negative results and highlight potential limitations of the paper. You will be criticized by the reviewers if you don’t discuss the shortcomings of your research. This often makes up for a great discussion section, so do not be afraid to highlight them.

The results and discussion section of your research paper should include the following:

    Findings
    Comparison with prior studies
    Limitations of your work
    Casual arguments
    Speculations
    Deductive arguments

1. Findings:
From the short review above, key findings emerge: __
We describe the results of __, which show __
This suggests that __
We showed that __
Our findings on __ at least hint that __
This is an important finding in the understanding of the __
The present study confirmed the findings about __
Another promising finding was that __
Our results demonstrated that __
This result highlights that little is known about the __
A further novel finding is that __
Together, the present findings confirm __
The implications of these findings are discussed in __
The results demonstrate two things.  First, __. Second,  __
The results of the experiment found clear support for the __
This analysis found evidence for __
Planned comparisons revealed that __
Our results casts a new light on __
This section summarises the findings and contributions made.
It performs well, giving good results.
This gives clearly better results than __
The results confirm that this a good choice for __
From the results, it is clear that __
In this section, we will illustrate some experimental results.
This delivers significantly better results due to __
The result now provides evidence to __
It leads to good results, even if the improvement is negligible.
This yields increasingly good results on data.
The result of this analysis is then compared with the  __
The applicability of these new results are then tested on __
This is important to correctly interpret the results.
The results are substantially better than __
The results lead to similar conclusion where __
Superior results are seen for __
From these results it is clear that __
Extensive results carried out show that this method improves __
We obtain good results with this simple method.
However, even better results are achieved when using our algorithm.
It is worth discussing these interesting facts revealed by the results of  __
Overall, our method was the one that obtained the most robust results.
Slightly superior results are achieved with our algorithm.
The result is equal to or better than a result that is currently accepted.

2. Comparison with prior studies:
The results demonstrated in this chapter match state of the art methods.
Here we compare the results of the proposed method with those of the traditional methods.
These results go beyond previous reports, showing that __
In line with previous studies __
This result ties well with previous studies wherein __
Contrary to the findings of __ we did not find __
They have demonstrated that __
Others have shown that __ improves __
By comparing the results from __, we hope to determine __
However, in line with the ideas of __, it can be concluded that __
When comparing our results to those of older studies, it must be pointed out that __
We have verified that using __ produces similar results
Overall these findings are in accordance with findings reported by __
Even though we did not replicate the previously reported __, our results suggest that __
A similar conclusion was reached by __
However, when comparing our results to those of older studies, it must be pointed out __
This is consistent with what has been found in previous __
A similar pattern of results was obtained in __
The findings are directly in line with previous findings
These basic findings are consistent with research showing that __
Other results were broadly in line with __

3. Limitations of your work:

Because of the lack of __ we decided to not investigate __
One concern about the findings of __ was that __
Because of this potential limitation, we treat __
The limitations of the present studies naturally include __
Regarding the limitations of __, it could be argued that __
Another limitation of this __
This limitation is apparent in many __
Another limitation in __ involves the issue of __
The main limitation is the lack of __
One limitation is found in this case.
One limitation of these methods however is that they __
It presents some limitations such as __
Although widely accepted, it suffers from some limitations due to __
An apparent limitation of the method is __
There are several limitations to this approach.
One limitation of our implementation is that it is __
A major source of limitation is due to  __
The approach utilised suffers from the limitation that __
The limitations are becoming clear __
It suffers from the same limitations associated with a __

4. Casual arguments:
A popular explanation of __ is that __
It is by now generally accepted that __
A popular explanation is that __
As it is not generally agreed that __
These are very small and difficult to observe.
It is important to highlight the fact that __
It is notable that __
An important question associated with __ is __
This did not impair the __
This is important because there is __
This implies that __ is associated with __
This is indicative for lack of __
This will not be biased by __
There were also some important differences in __
It is interesting to note that, __
It is unlikely that __
This may alter or improve aspects of __
In contrast, this makes it possible to __
This is particularly important when investigating __
This has been used to successfully account for __
This introduces a possible confound in __
This was included to verify that __

5. Speculations:
However, we acknowledge that there are considerable discussions among researchers as to __
We speculate that this might be due to __
There are reasons to doubt this explanation of __
It remains unclear to which degree __ are attributed to __
However, __ does seem to improve __
This does seem to depend on __
It is important to note, that the present evidence relies on __
The results show that __ does not seem to impact the __
However, the extent to which it is possible to __ is unknown
Alternatively, it could simply mean that __
It is difficult to explain such results within the context of __
It is unclear whether this is a suitable for __
This appears to be a case of __
From this standpoint, __ can be considered as __
To date, __remain unknown
Under certain assumptions, this can be construed as __
Because of this potential limitation, we treat __
In addition, several questions remain unanswered.
At this stage of understanding, we believe__
Therefore, it remains unclear whether __
This may explain why __

6. Deductive Arguments:
A difference between these __ can only be attributable to __
Nonetheless, we believe that it is well justified to __
This may raise concerns about __ which can be addressed by __
As discussed, this is due to the fact that __
Results demonstrate that this is not necessarily true.
These findings support the notion that __ is not influenced by __
This may be the reason why we did not find __
In order to test whether this is equivalent across __, we __
Therefore, __ can be considered to be equivalent for __

* * *

6. Conclusion and Future Work:


A research paper should end with a well-constructed conclusion. The conclusion is somewhat similar to the introduction. You restate your aims and objectives and summarize your main findings and evidence for the reader. You can usually do this in one paragraph with three main key points, and one strong take-home message. You should not present any new arguments in your conclusion. You can raise some open questions and set the scene for the next study. This is a good place to register your thoughts about possible future work. Try to explain to your readers what more could be done? What do you think are the next steps to take? What other questions warrant further investigation? Remember, the conclusion is the last part of the essay that your reader will see, so spend some time writing the conclusion so that you can end on a high note.

The conclusion section of your research paper should include the following:

    Overall summary
    Further research

1. Overall summary

The paper concludes by arguing __
On this basis, we conclude that __
The authors concluded that __ is not confined to __
This allows the conclusion that __
The findings of this study can be understood as __
This may be considered a promising aspect of __
This may be considered a further validation of __
Remaining issues are subject of __
In summary, this paper argued that __
This aspect of the research suggested that __
In conclusion, __ seems to improve __
In summary, this paper argued that __
In conclusion, it would appear that __
The analysis leads to the following conclusions: __
It is difficult to arrive at any conclusions with regard to __
The main conclusion that can be drawn is that __
The present findings confirm __
As we have argued elsewhere __ may be considered a promising aspect of __
Ideally, these findings should be replicated in a study where __
By using __ we tested the hypothesis that __
In conclusion, __ seems to improve __
Broadly translated our findings indicate that __
This is an important finding in the understanding of the __
More generally, these basic findings are consistent with research showing that __
In addition, these findings provide additional information about __
Despite the limitations these are valuable in light of __
Overall, our results demonstrate a strong effect of __
Nevertheless, we found __
To our knowledge, this is the first report of __
Our results on __ are broadly consistent with __
The broad implication of the present research is that __
This conclusion follows from the fact that __
Collectively, our results appear consistent with __
Importantly, our results provide evidence for __
Results provide a basis for __
This experiment adds to a growing corpus of research showing __
Our data indicate that __; a result that casts a new light on __
These findings provide a potential mechanism for __
We have shown that __
Our data suggest that we still have a long way to go to __

2. Future work:
Future research should consider the potential effects of __ more carefully, for example __
This assumption might be addressed in future studies.
Future  research on __ might extend the explanations of __
This is very much the key component in future attempts to overcome __
In future work, investigating __ might prove important.
This is desirable for future work.
Future investigations are necessary to validate the kinds of conclusions that can be drawn from this study.
Future studies could fruitfully explore this issue further by __
Future research is needed to delimitate __
It will be important that future research investigate __
It is a question of future research to investigate __
We believe that apart from looking for __, future research should look for __
Regardless, future research could continue to explore __
This is an issue for future research to explore.
Future studies could investigate the association between __
Future studies should aim to replicate results in a larger __
Future research should be devoted to the development of __
This may constitute the object of future studies.
Future research could examine __
Interesting research questions for future research that can be derived from __
In future research, more research is needed to apply and test __
This is an interesting topic for future work.
Future research should further develop and confirm these initial findings by __
Future research should certainly further test whether __
As also recommended above, future research should __
Future research should examine strategically __
Future research might apply __
In addition, __ might prove an important area for future research.
A number of recommendations for future research are given.
Therefore, future research should be conducted in more realistic settings to __
Further research on __ issue is warranted.
Further work is certainly required to disentangle these complexities in __
Looking forward, further attempts could prove quite beneficial to the literature.
Further research is needed to confirm this novel finding.
These result warrant further investigation via __
This provides a good starting point for discussion and further research.
Further studies should investigate __
The possibility of __ warrants further investigation.

* * *

7. Acknowledgements and Appendix:

There is no standard way to write acknowledgements. This section allows you to thank all the people who helped you with the project. You can take either formal or informal tone; you won’t be penalized.  You can place supplementary materials in the appendix and refer to them in the main text. There is no limit on what you can place in the appendix section. This can include figures, tables, costs, budget, maps, etc. Anything that is essential for the paper but might potentially interrupt the flow of the paper goes in the appendix.

1. Acknowledgements:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of __
The authors acknowledge the infrastructure and support of __
The authors would like to thank __
The work was supported by the __
The authors very much appreciate the support by the __
The authors appreciate the unknown referee’s valuable and profound comments.
The authors wish to express their thanks for the financial support of __
This material is based upon work supported by the __
The financial support of the __ is also gratefully acknowledged.
Funding for the present work was provided by __
The opinions of the authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of __
Part of this work was carried out within the financial support from __
The authors would like to thank the reviewer for the constructive feedback.
This research was supported by __
Partial support for the work was provided by __
The authors sincerely acknowledge the __
Authors also acknowledge the __ for the support in __
The authors thank __ for discussions on __

2. Appendix:

For interested readers a detailed description is presented in the Appendix __
Further description is available in the Appendix or from the author__
Complete data is available in __
Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at __
The full colour images can be found in the on-line version, at __
 

ISSN 0554-5579 (Printed)
ISSN 1800-9492 (Online)
DOI : 10.17707/AgricultForest

Search

Author (s) :
Title :
Keywords :
Volume 66 / Issue 3
to be published in:
47 days, 17 hours, 3 minutes.
r