CITATION STYLE

IN-TEXT CITATION STYLE

 
Authors:
 
Single author: (Spalevic, 2017);
Two authors: (Spalevic & Curovic, 2014);
The symbol “&” is used inside parentheses while “and” is used within the text (outside of the parentheses).
More than three (Spalevic et al., 2006);
If author(s) names are mentioned in the text outside of parentheses, the year must be placed in parentheses.
 
Example: 
Research by Spalevic (2009) showed that…
Or:
Research by Vujacic and Spalevic (2011) indicated that…
Or: 
Research by Spalevic et al. (2010) demonstrated that…
 
 
Organization: 
The first time the article is cited, use: (Biotechnical Faculty [BTF], 2011);
If the article is cited again, use: (BTF, 2011).
 
 
 
 
END-OF-TEXT CITATION STYLE: REFERENCE LIST
 
 
BOOKS
 
Book with one author
Author, A. A. (Year of publication): Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
 
Sagar, S. M. (2001): Restored harmony: An evidence based approach for integrating Traditional Chinese medicine into complementary cancer care. Hamilton, Ontario: Dreaming DragonFly Communications.
 
Note: For “Location,” you should always list the city, but you should also include the state if the city is unfamiliar or if the city could be confused with one in another state.
 
 
 
Book with two authors
 
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
 
Birch, S. J., & Felt, R. L. (1999). Understanding acupuncture. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
 
Note: Use “&”, not “and” when listing more than one author.
 
 
 
Book with three to six authors
 
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
 
Ulrich, H., Hecker, A., Steveling, E., & Kastner, J. (2001). Color atlas of acupuncture: Body points, ear points, trigger points. Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme Medical Publishers.
 
Again, list last names and initials; commas separate author names, with the last author name preceded, as above, by “&”.
 
 
 
Book with more than six authors
 
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., et al. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
 
List the first six as above and then “et al.,” which stands for “and others”. Remember not to place a period after “et” in “et al.”
 
 
 
Edited book
 
Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
 
Stux, G., & Hammerschlag, R. (Eds.). (2001). Clinical acupuncture: Scientific basis. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
 
 
 
Book chapter
 
Author of chapter, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of chapter: Capital letter also for subtitle of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. (pp.xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
 
Weibo, L. (1999). Traditional Chinese medicine and the goals of medicine. In M. J. Hanson & D. Callahan (Eds.), The goals of medicine: The forgotton issue in health care reform. (pp.198-206). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
 
 
 
 
JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS
 
Journal article – Paginated by issue
Journals paginated by issue begin with page one in every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized. 
 
 
Basic format:
 
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume Number(issue number), 1-21.
 
Pletcher, S. D., Goldberg, A. N., Lee, J., & Acquah, J. (2006). Use of acupuncture in the treatment of sinus and nasal symptoms: Results of a practitioner survey. American Journal of Rhinology, 20(2), 235-237.
 
Witt, C., Brinkhaus, B., Jena, S., Linde, K., Streng, A., Wagenpfeil, S., et al. (2005). Acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized trial. Lancet, 366, 136-143.
 
Notes: If a journal article has more than 6 authors, include the first 6 authors followed by “et al.” Include the full name of the journal (no abbreviations).
 
 
 
Online article:
 
The new edition of the APA recognizes that online articles are the primary format for journal use. Anywhere you access an online journal article (website, database, interlibrary loan link, anything), will be cited the same way. The format is the same as print, but you should include the DOI if available.
 
Kwokming, J.C. (2009). Neuroanatomical basis of acupuncture treatment for some common diseases. Acupuncture in Medicine, 27(2), 61-64. doi:10.1136/aim.2009.000455
 
If no DOI is provided, you can use the URL. Note: If you have a long url that spans over a line, you can break it right after a slash or before a period.
 
Vaghela, S.A., Donnellan, C.P. (2008). Acupuncture for back pain, knee pain and insomnia in transverse myelitis-A case report. Acupuncture in Medicine, 26(3), 188-192. www.acupunctureinmedicine.org.uk/volindex.php
 
Whether a DOI is available or not, you do not have to include the retrieval date.
 
 
 
Abstract:
 
Cao, H., Liu, J., & Lewith, G. T. (2010). Traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of fibromyalgia: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials [Abstract]. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(4), 397-409.
 
 
 
Magazine article
 
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine name, Volume Number, xx-xx.
 
Gorman, C. (2007, February 26). Are doctors just playing hunches? Time, 169, 52-54.
 
 
 
Newspaper article
 
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Name, p.1A.
 
Bor, J. (2006, March 31). Distant prayer for patients in heart study failed to help. Denver Post, p. 1A.
 
Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages are noted by p. (for example p.B2); and multiple pages are noted by pp., (for example pp.B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4).
 
 
 
 
WEBSITES
 
 
General rule:
 
At a minimum, provide a document title or description, a date (either date of publication or update), and a URL. Whenever possible, identify the authors as well. Hint: If you can’t find the above information you must question the source!! Be sure to look for references any time information is listed as fact, and use the primary research whenever possible.
 
 

Websites with a listed author:
 
Gregoire, H. (2005). Acupuncture techniques. Retrieved from http://www.goldenneedle. ca/technique.htm
 
 
 
Corporate author or government report:
 
If the website is a governmental or organizational website, treat the organization as the author:
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs): Data & statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/ data.html
 
 
 
Blog post:
 
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Author screen name {as it appears on the blog}. (Year, Month Day {of post}). Title of specific post [Web log post]. Retrieved from URL of specific post
 
Staniford, T. (2009, March 6). Acupuncture and fibromyalgia [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://sfacupuncture.wordpress.com/2009/03/06/acupuncture-and-fibromyalgia/
 
 
 
No author:
 
If the website you are using is not from a verified source (such as a governmental website) and does not list an author, proceed with caution. If you have determined the site is a necessary resource, the title should move into the first position:
 
New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved from http://news.ninemsn.com .au/health/story_13178.asp
 
Again: If you have a long url that spans over a line, you can break it right after a slash or before a period.
 

ISSN 0554-5579 (Printed)
ISSN 1800-9492 (Online)
DOI : 10.17707/AgricultForest

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Volume 66 / Issue 3
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